Categories Alcohol & Drug Use

Signs and Symptoms of Substance Abuse-Overdose Assistance

Please take into accout your purpose for trying to seek out out if someone is doing alcohol and/or drugs- To Discover and Help relatively than Catch and Punish.

General: General and specific guides to detection of alcohol and drug use, and definition of addiction.

Contents:I. General Guide to Detection

II. Definition of Addiction

III. Pupil Dilation

IV. Signs and Symptoms

V. Paraphernalia a) S/S Chart Version

VI. Drug Facts

VII. Articles and Other Resources

VIII. Drug Pictures/Resources

IX. Topics

X. Additional Articles (Alcoholism, Drugs, Teenage Addiction, Interventions)

XI. Overdose and Emergency Intervention Techniques

I. Specific: General Guide to Detection

Abrupt changes in work or school attendance, quality of labor, work output, grades, discipline.

Unusual flare-ups or outbreaks of temper. Withdrawal from responsibility. General changes in overall attitude. Deterioration of physical appearance and grooming.

Wearing of sunglasses at inappropriate times. Continual wearing of long-sleeved garments particularly in hot weather or reluctance to wear short sleeved attire when appropriate. Association with known substance abusers. Unusual borrowing of cash from friends, co-workers or parents. Stealing small items from employer, home or school. Secretive behavior regarding actions and possessions; poorly concealed attempts to avoid attention and suspicion reminiscent of frequent trips to storage rooms, restroom, basement, etc.

II. Specific: DSM-IV Definition of Addiction

A maladaptive pattern of substance use, resulting in clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by three (or more) of the next, occurring at any time in the identical 12-month period:

(1) Tolerance, as defined by either of the next:

a. A necessity for markedly increased amounts of the substance to realize intoxication or desired effect.

b. Markedly diminished effect with continued use of the identical amount of the substance.

(2) Withdrawal, as manifested by either of the next:

a. The characteristic withdrawal syndrome for the substance

b. The identical (or a closely related) substance is taken to alleviate or avoid withdrawal symptoms. (

3) The substance is usually taken in larger amounts or over an extended period than was intended (lack of control).

(4) There may be a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to chop down or control substance use (lack of control). (

5) An ideal deal of time is spent on activities obligatory to acquire the substance, use the substance, or recuperate from its effects (preoccupation).

(6) Vital social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced due to substance use (continuation despite antagonistic consequences).

(7) The substance use is sustained despite knowledge of getting a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that’s prone to have been caused or exacerbated by the substance (antagonistic consequences).

III. Specific: Pupil Dilation

Before you do anything, consider this. There are two trains of thought prior to detection and intervention. One thought is to catch and punish, and the opposite is to discover and help- remember why you might be doing this, and the intervention will end up significantly better.

Note: A 6mm, 7mm, or 8mm pupil size could indicate that an individual is under the influence of cocaine, crack, and meth, hallucinogens, crystal, ecstasy, or other stimulant. A 1mm or 2mm pupil size could indicate an individual under the influence of heroin, opiates, or other depressant. A pupil near pinpoint could indicate use. A pupil completely dilated could indicate use. Blown out wide pupils are indicative of crack, methamphetamine, cocaine, and stimulant use. Pinpoint pupils are indicative of heroin, opiate, depressant use.

Other causes of pupil dilation

IV. Specific: Signs and Symptoms

Alcohol: Odor on the breath. Intoxication. Difficulty focusing: glazed appearance of the eyes. Uncharacteristically passive behavior; or combative and argumentative behavior. Gradual (or sudden in adolescents) deterioration in personal appearance and hygiene. Gradual development of dysfunction, especially in job performance or schoolwork. Absenteeism (particularly on Monday). Unexplained bruises and accidents. Irritability. Flushed skin. Lack of memory (blackouts). Availability and consumption of alcohol becomes the main target of social or skilled activities. Changes in peer-group associations and friendships. Impaired interpersonal relationships (troubled marriage, unexplainable termination of deep relationships, alienation from close members of the family).

Marijuana/Pot: Rapid, loud talking and bursts of laughter linearly stages of intoxication. Sleepy or stupor within the later stages. Forgetfulness in conversation. Inflammation in whites of eyes; pupils unlikely to be dilated. Odor just like burnt rope on clothing or breath. Tendency to drive slowly – below speed limit. Distorted sense of time passage – tendency to overestimate time intervals. Use or possession of paraphernalia including roach clip, packs of rolling papers, pipes or bongs. Marijuana users are difficult to acknowledge unless they’re under the influence of the drug on the time of remark. Casual users may show none of the final symptoms. Marijuana does have a definite odor and stands out as the same color or a bit greener than tobacco.

Cocaine/Crack/Methamphetamines/Stimulants: Extremely dilated pupils. Dry mouth and nose, bad breath, frequent lip licking. Excessive activity, difficulty sitting still, lack of interest in food or sleep. Irritable, argumentative, nervous. Talkative, but conversation often lacks continuity; changes subjects rapidly. Runny nose, cold or chronic sinus/nasal problems, nose bleeds. Use or possession of paraphernalia including small spoons, razor blades, mirror, little bottles of white powder and plastic, glass or metal straws.

Depressants: Symptoms of alcohol intoxication with no alcohol odor on breath (do not forget that depressants are steadily used with alcohol). Lack of facial features or animation. Flat affect. Flaccid appearance. Slurred speech. Note: There are few readily apparent symptoms. Abuse could also be indicated by activities reminiscent of frequent visits to different physicians for prescriptions to treat” nervousness”, “anxiety”,” stress”, etc.

Narcotics/Prescription Drugs/Opium/Heroin/Codeine/Oxycontin: Lethargy, drowsiness. Constricted pupils fail to answer light. Redness and raw nostrils from inhaling heroin in power form. Scars (tracks) on inner arms or other parts of body, from needle injections. Use or possession of paraphernalia, including syringes, bent spoons, bottle caps, eyedroppers, rubber tubing, cotton and needles. Slurred speech. While there could also be no readily apparent symptoms of analgesic abuse, it could be indicated by frequent visits to different physicians or dentists for prescriptions to treat pain of non-specific origin. In cases where patient has chronic pain and abuse of medication is suspected, it could be indicated by amounts and frequency taken.

Inhalants: Substance odor on breath and garments. Runny nose. Watering eyes. Drowsiness or unconsciousness. Poor muscle control. Prefers group activity to being alone. Presence of luggage or rags containing dry plastic cement or other solvent at home, in locker at college or at work. Discarded whipped cream, spray paint or similar chargers (users of nitrous oxide). Small bottles labeled” incense” (users of butyl nitrite).

Solvents, Aerosols, Glue, Petrol: Nitrous Oxide – laughing gas, whippits, nitrous. Amyl Nitrate – snappers, poppers, pearlers, rushamie, .Butyl Nitrate – locker room, bolt, bullet, rush, climax, red gold. Slurred speech, impaired coordination, nausea, vomiting, slowed respiratory. Brain damage, pains within the chest, muscles, joints, heart trouble, severe depression, fatigue, lack of appetite, bronchial spasm, sores on nose or mouth, nosebleeds, diarrhea, bizarre or reckless behavior, sudden death, suffocation.

LSD/Hallucinogens: Extremely dilated pupils, (see note below). Warm skin, excessive perspiration and body odor. Distorted sense of sight, hearing, touches; distorted image of self and time perception. Mood and behavior changes, the extent depending on emotional state of the user and environmental conditions Unpredictable flashback episodes even long after withdrawal (although these are rare). Hallucinogenic drugs, which occur each naturally and in synthetic form, distort or disturb sensory input, sometimes to a terrific degree. Hallucinogens occur naturally in primarily two forms, (peyote) cactus and psilocybin mushrooms.

Several chemical varieties have been synthesized, most notably, MDA , STP, and PCP. Hallucinogen usage reached a peaking america within the late 1960’s, but declined shortly thereafter resulting from a broader awareness of the detrimental effects of usage. Nevertheless, a disturbing trend indicating resurgence in hallucinogen usage by highschool and college age individuals nationwide has been acknowledged by law enforcement. Excluding PCP, all hallucinogens appear to share common effects of use. Any portion of sensory perceptions could also be altered to various degrees. Synesthesia, or the “seeing” of sounds, and the “hearing” of colours, is a typical side effect of hallucinogen use. Depersonalization, acute anxiety, and acute depression leading to suicide have also been noted consequently of hallucinogen use. Note: there are some types of hallucinogens which are considered downers and constrict pupil diameters.

PCP: Unpredictable behavior; mood may swing from passiveness to violence for no apparent reason. Symptoms of intoxication. Disorientation; agitation and violence if exposed to excessive sensory stimulation. Fear, terror. Rigid muscles. Strange gait. Deadened sensory perception (may experience severe injuries while appearing not to note). Pupils may appear dilated. Mask like facial appearance. Floating pupils, appear to follow a moving object. Comatose (unresponsive) if great amount consumed. Eyes could also be open or closed.

Ecstasy: Confusion, depression, headaches, dizziness (from hangover/after effects), muscle tension, panic attacks, paranoia, possession of pacifiers (used to stop jaw clenching), lollipops, candy necklaces, mentholated vapor rub, severe anxiety, sore jaw (from clenching teeth after effects), vomiting or nausea (from hangover/after effects)

Signs that your teen could possibly be high on Ecstasy: Blurred vision, rapid eye movement, pupil dilation, chills or sweating, high body temperature, sweating profusely, dehydrated, confusion, faintness, paranoia or severe anxiety, trance-like state, transfixed on sites and sounds, unconscious clenching of the jaw, grinding teeth, very affectionate.


Stimulants (Cocaine, Ecstasy, Meth., Crystal)

Depressants (Heroin, Marijuana, Downers)

Hallucinogens (LSD)

Narcotics (Rx. Medications)

Inhalants (Paint, Gasoline, White Out)



Note: Paraphernalia- Remember, that it’s possible you’ll not find drugs, in the event you are trying to find them, but you may often find the paraphernalia related to use.

VI. Specific: Drug Facts

Includes identifiers, definitions, language of users and dealers. Drug Terms Slang and Street Terms

VII. Specific: Articles and Other Resources

This the extra information for brain chemistry and the drug user)

VIII. Specific: Drug Pictures/Resources from the DEA



NARCOTICS Narcotics of Natural Origin

Opium, Morphine, Codeine, Thebaine

Semi-Synthetic Narcotics

Heroin Hydromorphone Oxycodone Hydrododone

Synthetic Narcotics


Narcotics Treatment Drugs

Methadone Dextroproxyphene Fentanyl Pentazocine Butorphanol

DEPRESSANTS Barbiturates

Controlled Substances Uses and Effects (Chart) Benzodiazepines Gamma

Hydroxybutric AcidParaldehyde, Chloral HydrateGlutethimide 7


Newly Marketed Drugs

STIMULANTS Cocaine Amphetamines

Methcathinone, Methylphenidate


CANNABIS Marijuana Hashish Hashish Oil

HALLUCINOGENS LSD Psilocybin & Psiocyn and Other Tryptamines Peyote & Mescaline MDMA (Ecstasy) & Other Phenethylamines Phencyclidine (PCP) & Related Drugs Ketamine



IX. Specific: NICD Topics

Do you may have questions referring to addiction /addictions / substance abuse? Contact us…Health Info and Videos Medical issues updated weekly. Family Resources for the family, intervention information, support, and counseling. Medical information, doctor and specialists directory, terminology and dictionary of terms. Treatment.

The Villa at Scottsdale- Providing a full continuum of look after the treatment of alcoholism and drug addiction.

Alcohol and Drug Addiction Survival Kit

General: A series, for the person, family, friends, employers, educators, professionals, etc. on prevention, intervention, treatment, recovery, relapse prevention, support, and other issues referring to alcoholism and drug addiction.

1. Prevention- Includes recommendations on learn how to check with your kids about alcohol, tobacco, and medicines.

2. Detection of Signs and Symptoms- A guide to detection of alcohol and various drug usage.

3. Definition of Addiction- A DSM-IV definition of exactly what constitutes alcoholism and drug addiction.

4. Intervention- Interventions can and do work. We’ll show you learn how to do it effectively.

5. Treatment & Housing- A treatment center and halfway house locator.

6. Support- Some guides to learn how to support someone while they’re in treatment.

7. After Care- What to do prior to and after release from treatment.

8. Recovery / Relapse Prevention- Addiction can surface again, in the shape of relapse.

9. Other Issues- Issues to take into consideration regarding those affected by substance abuse, in addition to those around them.

10. References- An inventory of those that contributed to this series of articles.

Articles Medical Today Dr. William Gallagher takes us through his use of DNFT together with his patients. Psychotherapy Today Psychologist Jim Maclaine keeps us up so far together with his articles of insight, therapy, and healing. Counseling Today Therapist Thom Rutledge gives a creative approach to coping with life on life’s terms via his unique counseling sessions. Big Book Bytes Creator Shelly Marshall shares via the Big Book on problems with concern to those in recovery. All pages are set-up to repeat, to be used by counselors, professionals, sponsors, and others.

Recovery Today Interviews of individuals in recovery, about alcoholism, drug abuse, addictions, recovery, sobriety, spirituality, wisdom, experience, strength, and hope. Tune in monthly for brand spanking new articles!

A.A. History Creator Dick B. will take you back to a time when the recovery rates were as high as 93%.

Journaling Today A series of informative articles by Creator Doreene Clementon how, why, and what to write down about.

Spirituality Today Creator Carol Tuttle takes us to recent heights on our spiritual journey.

Articles of God and Faith Features 100’s of topics referring to God, faith, spirituality, and more.

Life Today On a regular basis life experiences from people everywhere in the world. Life, Addictions, Recovery, Hope, Inspiration, Wisdom, Advice, and so way more. Tune in regularly to see what others have and are going through. Find hope from the experiences of others.

Steps Today Recovery Peer and Advisory Board Member Dean G. gives creative approach to coping with life on life’s terms via his unique recovery sessions.

Step Work / Relapse Prevention This service is designed to help with step work, with quotes and pages from the Big Book, with forms able to copy and utilize. There may be a piece dedicated to relapse prevention as well.

X. Specific: Additional Articles

Health and Medical News, videos, text from the world of medication, health, and medical.

Ecstasy information.

How Do I Talk With My Kids About Alcohol?

How Do I check with my kids about drugs?

How Do I talk with my teenager about drugs and alcohol?

What does a crack pipe seem like?

Family assistance for substance abuse.

Addiction treatment for my teenager.

Overdose or OD Information

XI. Specific: Overdose & Emergency Intervention Techniques

Drug Overdose- Drug overdoses could be accidental or on purpose. The quantity of a drug needed to cause an overdose varies with the variety of drug and the person taking it. Overdoses from prescription or over-the-counter (OTC) medicines, “street” drugs, and/or alcohol could be life threatening. Know, too, that mixing certain medications or “street” drugs with alcohol may kill.

Physical symptoms of a drug overdose vary with the variety of drug(s) taken. They include: Abnormal respiratory Slurred speech Lack of coordination Slow or rapid pulse Low or elevated body temperature Enlarged or small eye pupils Reddish face Heavy sweating Drowsiness Violent outbursts Delusions and/or hallucinations Unconsciousness which can result in coma (Note: A diabetic who takes insulin may show a number of the above symptoms if she or he is having an insulin response.)

Parents need to observe for signs of illegal drug and alcohol use of their children. Morning hangovers, the odor of alcohol, and red streaks within the whites of the eyes are obvious signs of alcohol use. Items reminiscent of pipes, rolling papers, eye droppers and butane lighters stands out as the first telling clues that somebody is abusing drugs. One other clue is behavior changes reminiscent of: Lack of appetite Insomnia Hostility Mental confusion Depression Mood swings Secretive behavior Social isolation Deep sleep Hallucinations.

Prevention- Accidental prescription and over-the-counter medication overdoses could also be prevented by asking your doctor or pharmacist: What’s the medication and why is it being prescribed? How and when should the medication be taken and for a way long? (Follow the instructions exactly as given.) Can the medication be taken with other medicines or alcohol or not? Are there any foods to avoid while taking this medication? What are the possible unwanted effects? What are the symptoms of an overdose and what must be done if it occurs? Should any activities be avoided reminiscent of sitting within the sun, operating heavy machinery, driving? Should the drugs still be taken if there may be a pre-existing medical condition?

To avoid medication overdoses: Never take a drugs prescribed for another person. Never give or take medication in the dead of night. Before each dose, at all times read the label on the bottle to make sure it’s the right medication. At all times tell the doctor of any previous unwanted effects or antagonistic reactions to medication in addition to recent and weird symptoms that occur after taking the drugs. At all times store medications in bottles with childproof lids and place those bottles on high shelves, out of a toddler’s reach, or in locked cabinets. Take the prescribed dose, no more. Keep medications of their original containers to discourage illicit drug use amongst children: Set an excellent example on your children by not using drugs yourself. Teach your child to say “NO” to drugs and alcohol. Explain the hazards of drug use, including the chance of AIDS. Get to know your kids’s friends and their parents. Know where your kids are and whom they’re with. Hearken to your kids and help them to specific their feelings and fears. Encourage your kids to interact in healthy activities reminiscent of sports, scouting, community-based youth programs and volunteer work. Learn to acknowledge the signs of drug and alcohol abuse.

Inquiries to Ask:

Is the person not respiratory and has no pulse? FIRST AID Perform Cyprinids the person not respiratory, but has a pulse? FIRST AID Perform Rescue Respiratory AND is the person unconscious? FIRST AID lay the victim down on his or her left side and check airway, respiratory and pulse often before emergency care. Do CPR or Rescue Respiratory as needed. ANDdoes the person have any of those signs? Hallucinations Confusion Convulsions Respiratory slow and shallow and/or slurring their words

Do you watched the person has taken an overdose of medication? FIRST AID Call Poison Control Center. Follow the Poison Control Center’s instructions. Approach the victim calmly and punctiliously. Walk the person around to maintain her or him awake and to assist the syrup of ipecac work faster, in the event you were told to present this to the victim. Also, see “Poisoning”. AND is the person’s personality suddenly hostile, violent and aggressive? FIRST AID Use caution. Protect yourself. Don’t turn your back to the victim or move suddenly in front of her or him. Should you can, see that the victim doesn’t harm you, himself or herself. Remember, the victim is under the influence of a drug. Call the police to help you in the event you cannot handle the situation. Leave and discover a protected place to remain until the police arrive. AND Have you ever or another person by chance taken greater than the prescribed dose of a prescription or over-the-counter medication? DO NOT perform any technique unless it’s a matter of life and death! Should you are unsure of what you might be doing, please follow the instructions given by a 911 operator.

Note: If doctor isn’t available, call Poison Control Center. Follow instructions given.