Are you experiencing a few of these symptoms of the 4Ps: Polyphagia (excessive hunger), Polydipsia (excessive thirst), Polyuria (frequent urination) or Pruritis (itching)? Otherwise you easily get sleepy and drained? Or you may have some close relatives, your father or mother, an uncle and so forth with diabetes? Well, you ought to be aware for having diabetes mellitus. Nevertheless, to ascertain a sound diagnosis, it’s essential visit your physician who may as well send you for a blood test to look into your blood sugar levels…
There are several tests that have to be conducted to diagnose whether you may have diabetes or not. Those tests include:
#1 – Fasting plasma glucose test (FPGT). This test will measure your blood sugar or glucose levels. You can be asked to fast for no less than 8 hours prior to taking your blood sample. This test is frequently arranged so you may do the fasting within the evening and your blood sample to be taken within the morning. The result will show whether you may have diabetes or in stage of pre-diabetes.
#2 – Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). This test is supposed to measure your blood glucose levels in two stages. The primary one is analogous to the FPGT which is taking your blood sample after a fasting period of a minimum of 8 hours. After your blood take, you can be asked to drink a form of syrup (sugar diluted in water). The second blood sample can be taken after 2 other hours of your drinking. This test will establish the diagnosis of diabetes or pre-diabetes.
#3 – Random plasma glucose test.Your blood glucose level may also be measured at any time, regardless the time you may have been eating your last meal. This test, along with an evaluation of other symptoms, just like the above 4Ps, is used to ascertain the diagnosis of diabetes but not pre-diabetes.
Positive results of those three tests needs to be confirmed by repeating the fasting plasma glucose test in addition to the oral glucose tolerance test on one other day.
Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) Test
That is the test of alternative to diagnose diabetes because it is most convenience and reliable when taken within the morning. Test results may be read as follow:
- A fasting sugar level of 99 milligrams/dL or below signifies that your glucose level is normal
- A fasting sugar level of 100 – 125 milligrams/dL, concludes that you simply at a stage of pre-diabetes which can also be called by impaired fasting glucose (IFG). It means that you simply usually tend to get type-2 diabetes in the longer term, but doesn’t appear yet.
- A sugar level of 126 milligrams/dL and beyond, signifies that you may have diabetes mellitus which nonetheless, should then be confirmed by a repeated same test on one other day.
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)
Research has concluded that the OGTT appears to be more sensitive in comparison with the FPGT in diagnosing the stage of pre-diabetes. Nevertheless, it’s less convenient to administer. Test results may be read as follow:
- A blood sugar level after 2 hours of 139 milligrams/dL or below signifies that your glucose level is normal
- A blood sugar level between 140 – 199 milligrams/dL 2 hours after drinking the syrup, concludes that you simply are in a stage of pre-diabetes called impaired glucose tolerance or IGT, which implies that you simply usually tend to develop type-2 diabetes in the longer term, however it doesn’t appear yet.
- A 2-hour blood sugar level of upper than 200 milligrams/dL, signifies that you may have diabetes mellitus which nonetheless, should then be confirmed by a repeated same test on one other day.
To determine the diagnosis of Gestational diabetes, plasma glucose levels measured in the course of the OGTT may be observed. But on this case, blood sugar levels can be checked 4 times during a test with an interval of 1 hour between two blood takes. In case your blood sugar levels are above normal twice on the minimum in the course of the test, chances are you’ll be considered to have gestational diabetes.
The next scheme is showing the above-normal results for the OGTT for gestational diabetes cases:
- Fasting – 95 milligrams/dL or beyond
- After 1 hour – 180 milligrams/dL or beyond
- After 2 hours – 155 milligrams/dL or beyond
- After 3 hours – 140 millgrams/dL or beyond
Note: Some laboratories might use other standards for this test.
Random Plasma Glucose Test
A random plasma glucose level of 200 milligrams/dL or beyond, added by the next symptoms, may be concluded that you may have diabetes:
- Polyuria or frequent urination
- Polydypsia or excessive thirst
- Polyphagia or excessive hunger
- Pruriitis or itching
- Unexplained weight reduction
- Or other symptoms corresponding to fatigue, blurred vision, and un-healing sores.
Based on those findings, your physician will examine your blood sugar level on one other day using the FPGT or the OGTT to ascertain the diagnosis.